Monday, September 12, 2016

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow and...

My view I tend to stand with Stan Gooch and about the part we migrated together.
In life in the Prehistoric past there was connections and growth!

"Leaving aside at this time the issue of the numerous other human species
(how they interacted with one another, and what contributions they made to the
modern human lineage, remain open questions), Gooch believed that aggressive
and battle-skilled Cro-Magnons both massively exterminated some populations of
Neanderthals and also interbred with them. He wrote,
The genetic crossing of Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal produced not just (a) highly
gifted individuals (‘the mighty men of old, the men of renown’) but (b) an entirely 
new species of human – ourselves…. [T]his new product was… either entirely or
very largely due to Cro-Magnon men fertilising Neanderthal women – not the other
way around. These offspring would have been accepted into Cro-Magnon groups….
And so Neanderthal genes were introduced into the Cro-Magnon gene pool…"

And I get the point that we came from fish... Or at least our breathing air ability
came from such. Interesting!

And this brings up a good point we all seem to be missing on.
Growing together as a group keens to your own growth as
the many in our Prehistoric past adapts grows and does something
to make life better for themselves because the group is better off.
It's about Human Nature and our Nature as a whole!
The growth and acceptance of what is good for us!

In my family (Mom's side of the family alone) from a DNA test it is noted
we came from...

Africa -- less than 1%: - Northern Africa -- less than 1%
Europe -- 97%: - Great Britain -- 50% - Europe West -- 35%
Ireland -- 8% - Finland/Northwest Russia -- 1%
Iberian Penisula -- 1% - Europe East -- less than 1%
Scandinavia -- less than 1% - West Asia -- 2%:
Caucaus -- 1% - Middle East -- less than 1%
So you can see the point we all are alike in the view of our DNA.
And also to love and take in no matter who or what it's our diverse
branching out of taking in no matter who they are, makes us who we are!

~~~~~Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe


North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans.

Author Summary

The history of human populations can be retraced by studying the archaeological and anthropological record, but also by examining the current distribution of genetic markers, such as the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA. Ancient DNA research allows the retrieval of DNA from ancient skeletal remains and contributes to the reconstruction of the human population history through the comparison of ancient and present-day genetic data. Here, we analysed the mitochondrial DNA of prehistoric remains from archaeological sites dated to 7,500 and 3,500 years Before Present. These sites are located in North East Europe, a region that displays a significant cultural and linguistic diversity today but for which no ancient human DNA was available before. We show that prehistoric hunter-gatherers of North East Europe were genetically similar to other European foragers. We also detected a prehistoric genetic input from Siberia, followed by migrations from Western Europe into North East Europe. Our research contributes to the understanding of the origins and past dynamics of human population in Europe.

The absence of strong structure in the present-day mtDNA gene pool of NEE stands in contrast to the variety of languages and cultures, and to the complex history of how and when these were formed. Modern mtDNA data does not resolve the origins of the Saami either. Our aim was to provide answers to these questions and reconstruct events in the genetic history of NEE by generating and analyzing ancient DNA (aDNA) data from prehistoric human remains collected in northwest Russia. In particular, our objective was to characterize the genetic relationships between hunter-gatherer populations in NEE and Central/Northern Europe and to estimate the genetic legacy of ancient populations to present-day NEE and Saami. The oldest samples were collected in the Mesolithic graveyards of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov (aUz; ‘Southern Reindeer Island’ in Russian) and Popovo (aPo), both dated around 7,000–7,500 uncalibrated. yBP, uncal. yBP. The sites of aUz and aPo are located along one of the proposed eastern routes for the introduction of Saami-specific mtDNA lineages. Results from odontometric analyses suggested a direct genetic continuity between the Mesolithic population of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov and present-day Saami.
We also analyzed human remains from 3,500 uncal. yBP site Bol'shoy Oleni Ostrov (aBOO; ‘Great Reindeer island’ in Russian) in the Kola Peninsula. This site is located within the area currently inhabited by the Saami. We compared the ancient mtDNA data from NEE with a large dataset of ancient and modern-day Eurasian populations to search for evidence of past demographic events and temporal patterns of genetic continuity and discontinuity in Europe.

*Full story / data at:

~~~~~At least 20% of Neanderthal DNA Is in Humans
At least one-fifth of the Neanderthal genome may lurk within modern humans, i
nfluencing the skin, hair and diseases people have today, researchers say.

Although modern humans are the only surviving human lineage, other groups of early
humans used to live on Earth. The closest extinct relatives of modern humans were the
Neanderthals, who lived in Europe and Asia until they went extinct about 40,000 years ago.
The ancestors of modern humans diverged from those of Neanderthals between 550,000
and 765,000 years ago.

Recent findings revealed that Neanderthals interbred with ancestors of modern humans
when modern humans began spreading out of Africa perhaps about 40,000 to 80,000
years ago, although some research suggests the migration began earlier.
About 1.5 to 2.1 percent of the DNA of anyone outside Africa is Neanderthal in origin.

However, scientists reasoned that the Neanderthal DNA found in one person might not
be the same Neanderthal DNA of someone else.

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